Rise of Allergy

rise of allergy

Recent studies find that there is increase in the incidence of allergies over the last 25 years which may be described as an “epidemic”, and it is considered now as a major public health problem.

There is not a concrete understanding of why allergies have increased like this in recent times, especially in children. Potential reasons include lifestyle, physical environment, and genetic factors; however, it is likely that allergies occur due to combinations of these factors.

Risk factors are starting to emerge from studies like:

  • Skin exposure to allergens may lead to development of food allergy
  • Loss of function gene mutations (Filaggrin)
  • Delayed introduction of some kinds of foods (e.g., egg and peanut)

Risk factors that have not yet been confirmed in studies:

  • The hygiene hypothesis: this is a theory that assumes that children who have less exposure to infections or contaminations in their infancy will be at an increased risk of allergy.
  • Way of food processing (e.g., roasting some kinds of nuts as opposed to boiling them)
  • Vitamin D deficiency (study links between vitamin D deficiency and developing allergic diseases)

Tips to decrease liability of infant to develop allergy:

  • Breastfeeding for at least 6 months
  • Continue to breastfeed while introducing solid foods starting from 4-6 months.
  • Avoid smoking during pregnancy
  • Avoid passive smoking (exposure to tobacco smoke)
  • There is no evidence that a mother’s diet during pregnancy or during breastfeeding will reduce the risk of developing food allergy or not.




Hives (known as Urticaria) are characterized by circular red, raised, and itchy spots on the surface of the skin. They may appear like mosquito bites, with a red outer rim and a white center.it may occur anywhere on the body, but it is usually found on the torso, arms, throat, and legs. spots may vary in size from small to large. Hives usually disappear within minutes; but they may remain for days or weeks or sometimes longer.


Hives can arise due to different causes and the most common will be mentioned below, however almost 80% of hives` cases are of unknown reasons

  1. Allergens     

Allergens are responsible for the allergic reaction. They include many things as:

  • Medication as antibiotics, aspirin, and codeine
  • Foods and some kinds of food additives
  • Infections either bacterial, viral, or parasitic
  • Being in contact with plants or animals
  • animal dander, insect venom (as bee and wasp stings) or pollen

The more you are exposed to allergens, the more likely you will develop allergy to them.

  1. Physical and emotional changes

Hives may be triggered by excessive exercise, sweating, exposure to sunlight, hot or cold temperatures and emotional stress.

  1. Disease

Hives can appear as response to presence of antibodies produced by the immune system, as in the case of infection like the common cold.

  • Also hives may be caused by any underlying disorder of the immune system as systemic lupus erythematosus, rubella, and hepatitis

and in this case, it will be chronic.


Mild hives may not need treatment and will disappear within few days without treatment. To decrease the symptoms of hives you can:

  • Use a cool compress to the rash site and wear loose cotton clothing.
  • Avoid excessive physical activity and irritation of the affected area.
  • If you know the cause of the hives, try to avoid the causative agents as much as you can.
  • Avoid direct exposure to sunlight, heat and hot showers, as excess heat may exacerbate hives.
  • Moderate hives symptoms may require treatment with an antihistamine medication as Levohistam®.

In case of severe hives, or the rash continues for several days, See your doctor.

If you feel lightheaded or that your throat is swelling or you suffer from difficulty in breathing, Seek emergency medical.


1 https://www.allergy.org.au/patients/skin-allergy/urticaria-hives

2 https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/hives

Allergy management


  1. Find what causes your symptoms

You can determine what is responsible for your allergy from the time at which allergy starts at appear like eating something or being in certain place and you are exposed to different something or playing with your pet.

But if allergy arises on a continuous basis, your doctor may recommend an allergy test to determine the specific allergy that you have.

Allergy testing may involve scratching or dropping a drop of a purified allergen into skin and checking if there is any sign of allergic reaction.

  1. Avoid the causative factor

The best thing you can do to protect yourself from allergy and its symptoms, is to avoid the allergen once you can determine it.

  1. Treatment of allergy

If your symptoms of allergy are mild to moderate, an antihistamine (link of page of product details) medication such as Levohistam® may be helpful. Antihistamines provide an effective treatment for itchy eyes or nose, sneezing and runny nose. If you develop more severe symptoms, please seek advice from your healthcare provider for further treatment options.

After medication if symptoms persist, talk to your healthcare professional.


It may not be possible to avoid the allergens that may cause allergic symptoms all the time, but there are several things you can do to minimise the severity and /or frequency of their symptoms.

Helpful tips for people to reduce their exposure to common allergy triggers, as pollen, dust mites, mould, and animals.

  • Check the forecast and try to stay indoors if pollen percentage is high especially in spring.
  • Stay indoors especially on windy days.
  • Pollen levels tend to be higher during early morning, adjust your routine as much as you can.
  • Protect your eyes by wearing sunglasses outdoors and splash your eyes frequently with cold water to flush out any pollen.
  • Have regular shower and wash your hair before bed to protect yourself from any suspended pollen and to prevent any allergic symptoms during your sleep.
  • Regular dusting and vacuuming of furniture, floors and carpets can minimise levels of allergens.
  • After washing your bed linen and clothes, dry them indoors when pollen count is high.
  • Close your house windows and your car and depend on air conditioning during pollen season.
Dust mites
  • Use dust‐proof covers for mattresses and pillows.
  • Shower before going to bed.
  • Avoid eating in places where dust mites abound.
  • Wash bedding weekly in hot water starting from 55°C.
  • Vacuum everything regularly.
  • Keep pets out of your living and your bedroom.
  • Clean floors weekly.
  • Removing mould that you can see with appropriate cleaners.
  • Make sure that your home is well ventilated.
  • Repair any leaks to avoid humidity and mould growth.
  • Removing pot plants from home (as they promote mould growth).
  • Keep pets outside the house, and sure out of the bedrooms.
  • Bathe and groom your pets outdoors.
  • Wash your hands after touching or feeding pets.
  • Keep pets away of carpets and rugs.


Allergy testing may help you to know what you are allergic from. Some lifestyle changes, medications and allergens avoidance will help your symptoms relief.


Some allergy problems may not need specialist treatment, as the use of an over‐the‐counter antihistamine medication like Levohistam® can be sufficient. More serious allergies can interfere with day-to-day activities or in some cases may be life threatening. Allergy symptoms usually develop slowly over time, and you may get used to having them, but your doctor can help you to prevent or minimize these symptoms and improve your quality of life.

See an allergy specialist if:

  • You experience hay fever allergic symptoms for several months of the year.
  • Over‐the‐counter antihistamine medicines don’t control your symptoms.
  • Your allergies affect your daily activities.
  • Your allergies result in sinus infections, nasal congestion or breathing difficulty.
  • Serious allergic reactions happen such as wheezing or coughing especially after physical exercise, struggling to catch your breath, or being frequently out of breath.

Allergy testing is usually performed when suspected hay fever, or allergic reactions to certain foods and insect venom. When testing for hay fever, substances that usually found inside house as: dust mites, animal dander (as cats, dogs, or horses), mould spores, and pollen from different weeds, grasses and trees.


Allergy skin tests include 3 types:

  • skin prick tests
  • intradermal tests
  • patch tests
  1. Skin prick test

Skin prick test is the most common allergy test, it’s quick, convenient and its results are usually available within 20 minutes. It is usually used to detect allergies to dust mites, mould, pollen, pet dander, and insect venom.

Prick test involves exposing the skin to different allergens and checking the exposed area for any sign of an allergic reaction. If an allergen causes an allergic reaction in the skin, you will see reddening, swelling or itchy sensation at the spot of exposure, or a raised bump where the substance was applied. The severity of allergy is determined by the size of the swelling. The larger the area of swelling, the higher the sensitivity to the allergen in question.

  1. Intradermal test

It is usually used when insect venom is the suspected allergen. The allergen extract is injected beneath or under the skin and area is observed for 15 to 20 minutes. Intradermal testing is more accurate and it is usually used when the results obtained from skin prick test are inconclusive.

  1. Patch test

Patch testing is indicated for allergic skin irritation, and it detects delayed allergic reactions. It does not require any needles. The allergen is placed on a patch, and then applied to the skin for up to 48 hours. A patch test allows for many kinds of allergens up to 30 allergens to be tested at once, including perfumes, latex, hair dyes, metals and preservatives. After the estimated time, the tested person returns to the doctor who will remove the patches. If skin irritation is noticed at the patch site, this may indicate an allergy.



Allergy and its types


What is allergy?

Allergy symptoms occur as an immune response to allergen which is normally harmless but with some people, it induces allergic reactions.

Once an allergen is breathed in or comes in contact with the skin, your immune system fights the substance by releasing chemicals such as histamine.

As a result, allergy symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, stuffy nose, watery eyes, itchy skin or swelling may occur.


Some factors may cause allergies to develop including:

  1. Family history

Most allergies are inherited as they are passed down from parent to child, but it is not necessary to inherit allergy to the same allergen.

  1. Diet

The kind of diet from early days may be risk factor in developing allergies. As introducing cow milk or soymilk formulas before 3 or 4 months will be a risk in developing allergy.

  1. Time of Birth

Babies born during the spring have a higher risk of developing seasonal allergic rhinitis, or hay fever.

  1. Cigarette smoke

Passive exposure to cigarette smoke increases the risk of developing allergic respiratory symptoms in children.

  1. Exposure to allergens

Being in contact with allergens (substances that can trigger allergies) increases the risk of developing allergy and this probability will increase when your body`s immune defense is weak as during illness or pregnancy.


Allergies are more common in children, but they can develop at any time or age.


Not always. Sometimes allergic symptoms start to appear in childhood, disappear for years, and then start up again in adult life. Also, they are prone to developing new allergies.


Allergies can usually be treated by a wide range of products including antihistamines, which prevent histamine from attaching to cells and causing allergy symptoms.

Levohistam is a fast, non-drowsy oral antihistamine that helps in reduction of the symptoms of hay fever allergies.


  1. Dust mite allergies

Dust mile allergy arise because of dust mites which are tiny creatures, found in fiber-filled surfaces as pillows, mattresses, or any fiber surface in warm atmosphere, dark and humid. Allergy arises by inhalation of dust mites and their waste.

  1. Pet allergies

Pet allergies are triggered by pet dander from animals as dogs and cats. People with pet allergies have immune system response to harmless proteins found in dander, pet saliva or urine resulting in allergic symptoms. Pet hair itself is not considered an allergen, but it may collect dander. Avoiding exposure to the problem animal is the best way to avoid symptoms of allergy.

  1. Mould allergies

Mould is usually found indoors and outdoors and may be found in poorly ventilated areas. Symptoms such as sneezing, coughing and a blocked or runny nose may arise on exposure to mould. At home, Kitchens, bathrooms, and laundries are the most common areas where mould grows because of condensation and a lack of airflow.

  1. Pollen allergies

Pollen produced by trees, grasses, weeds and flowers cause allergy in many people. This type of allergic reaction is known as hay fever. Symptoms as sneezing, runny nose, stuffy nose, watery eyes, itchy skin or swelling may arise.

  1. Oral allergies

Oral allergy syndrome may result because of protein found in fruits and vegetables causing itching in the mouth after eating a particular fruit or vegetable.

Cooking destroys the proteins responsible for this allergic reaction, so the same foods that cause symptoms when eaten raw will not often cause allergy when cooked. Often the responsible proteins are in the skin of fruits and vegetables. Buying canned varieties may be an option, as canning destroys the proteins as well.


Tips to reduce your exposure to different allergens found at home

  1. Dust mites
  • Use allergen‐proof covers for mattresses and pillows.
  • Wash all bedding, blankets, or soft toys in very hot water weekly.
  • If you can, replace carpets with tiles or timber.
  • Use a vacuum cleaner with purifying filter.
  1. Mould
  • Keep good ventilation for the bathroom and try to keep it dry. You can use an exhaust fan.
  • Fix any water leaks anywhere in the house.
  • Discard papers, books and newspapers that are not in need as they can absorb moisture and encourage mould growth.
  • Clean the fridge drip tray and door seals.
  1. Pets
  • Keep pets outside your home or at least out of your bedroom and living areas.
  • Good home ventilation is a must.
  • Use allergen‐proof covers.
  • Bath the pets and clean its cage, bedding and litter box regularly.

Important tip for reducing your allergy symptoms

  • Wear a mask when cleaning your home or working in your garden to avoid dust mites, allergenic mite material and mould spores.




Allergy in children

Allergy in children

Allergies are common in children. Around 40% to 50% of children may suffer from allergies at some point in their lives.

The most common allergies are:

  • food allergies
  • eczema (skin allergy)
  • hay fever


This may be due to immune system overactivity. At some stage, the immune system mistakenly identifies something which is harmless, like dust mites or pollen, as a threat and in this case, it is called an allergen because after exposure to this allergen, the body starts to defend itself by the production of antibodies and secretion of other substances as histamine which causes symptoms of allergy.


Symptoms of allergy vary from child to other. These symptoms can be unpredictable and differ in their severity. If the allergic symptoms start mild, this does not mean that future reactions will be mild too.


Allergies may be caused by airborne allergens as mould, spores, pet dander, dust mites and pollen. Allergic rhinitis and other types of allergies usually develop during childhood and may diminish later in life.

Symptoms of allergies can include:

  • Frequent Sneezing
  • Itchy nose and throat
  • Blocked nose or runny nose
  • Cough
  • Watery, itchy and/or red eyes which is known as allergic conjunctivitis
  • “Allergic shiners” they are bluish dark circles under the eyes caused by of nose congestion.


Children who suffer from allergies to food, medicine or insect venom may experience some or all of the following symptoms:

  • Coughing
  • Stomachache
  • Watery, Itchy, or swollen eyes
  • Hives
  • Red spots with different sizes
  • Swelling
  • Anaphylaxis (emergency)


There are many ways to protect them from different allergies according to the causative agent as:

  1. Pollen allergy:
  • Keep windows closed in your kids` bedroom or in the car, use AC on recirculate.
  • Remind them to wear sunglasses outdoors to protect their eyes from pollen.
  • Bathe your child before bedtime to remove any suspended pollen on their hair and skin.
  • try to keep your child indoors when pollen counts are of high percentage especially in spring.
  • Try saline nasal drops or spray to wash out pollen and to loosen dried mucus.
  1. Dust mite allergy
  • Use dust‐mite proof covers for pillows and mattresses.
  • Use very hot water in washing bedding once a week.
  • Wash soft toys from the bedroom and wash them using very hot water once per week.
  • If possible, consider replacing carpet with hard flooring like tiles, wood, or linoleum.


An antihistamine will help relieving the symptoms of hay fever allergies.

An oral liquid antihistamine like Levohistam® is recommended for children between the ages of 2 and 11, also drops are available for infants from 6 months to 2 years old, and they provide rapid‐acting non‐drowsy relief from all allergic symptoms like sneezing, itchy and runny nose, itchy and watery eyes and itchy throat.

Contact your healthcare professional if your child allergy becomes worse or remains for more than 2 days after treatment with antihistamine.


Allergy and hay fever


Allergies is an overreaction of the immune system to a particular substance, known as an allergen. The most common allergens are pollen, mold, dust mites, animal dander, latex, and insect venom (as bees).


Allergic rhinitis is a condition in which allergies results in inflammation of the lining of the nose. The symptoms may resemble those of the common cold, but they are not caused by viral infection (as the common cold is). Allergic rhinitis may be during certain season (seasonal) or all year-round (perennial).  The severity of allergic rhinitis may be mild or moderate/severe.


Seasonal allergic rhinitis (INTERMITTENT), or hay fever, is caused by allergy to pollen from flowers, grass, weeds, or trees. It may cause sudden and frequent attacks of sneezing with nasal discharge, and congestion. These symptoms may be accompanied with eye symptoms, as stinging, watering, itchy eyes, and conjunctivitis.

Seasonal allergy typically develops in childhood, it is not unusual to develop it as an adult. In fact, the average age to develop this seasonal allergic rhinitis is about 15 years.


Perennial or persistent allergic rhinitis is a hypersensitivity reaction to allergens like dust mites, animal dander or fungal spores.


  1. Cold-like symptoms

Sneezing and a runny nose may be the first sign of both a common cold and an allergy attack. But unlike the common cold and influenza, the allergies are not caused by a viral infection. Common cold symptoms may vary as it may last for a few days up to two weeks according to severity of infection. If symptoms persist for longer time, they may be because of an allergy or you may need to ask your doctor for advice.

Allergies and common cold can be distinguished from other serious viral infections, like influenza, by lack of high fever, severe fatigue and colored mucous, cold or flu.

  1. Timing and recurrence of Irritation

To determine the cause, The timing of symptoms may help. Allergy, unlike viral infection cause persistent symptoms that recur in certain conditions. like hay fever which happens frequently in spring due to the increase of pollen count in air.


Hay fever appears mostly due to airborne pollens and allergens that make their way into your respiratory system, nasal passage or eyes and triggers immune response that led to inflammation of the area causing hay fever symptoms.

Several symptoms may indicate that you are suffering from hay fever allergy. They include:

  1. Frequent sneezing, nasal congestion, or runny nose.
  2. Red, itchy or watery eyes
  3. Itchy throat
  4. Irritated skin
  5. Rash and localized swellings which is known as hives

WHAT IS POLLEN (allergen)?

Pollen is a very fine powder produced by different types of plants, used to fertilize other plants from the same species. Flowering plants produce small amounts of pollen which are distributed by birds, flies, or bees from one plant to another. Other plants rely on the wind to disperse their pollen grains. These kinds of plants can cause pollen allergies (which is known as Hay fever or Allergic Rhinitis) in people.


Your doctor will ask about your medical history, physical examination and review your symptoms in order to diagnose your condition. Also, there are skin allergy tests done to diagnose which allergen is responsible for your symptoms.


  • Check forecast before going outside, to know if pollen count is high or not.
  • Protect your eyes by wearing sunglasses.
  • If you have plants, avoid the kinds that are pollinated by wind and use types that are pollinated by birds like the flowering plants.
  • Splash your eyes with cold water several times a day to flush out any pollen.
  • Apply Vaseline smear or something similar into your nose to protect them from irritation due to contact with pollen.
  • Keep your windows closed at home and in the car and depend on air conditioning.
  • Take an antihistamine allergy medication such as Levohistam® to control allergic symptoms as: sneezing, itchy eyes and other frustrating symptoms of hay fever.


Levohistam® is a 3rd generation non-drowsy antihistamine that reduce the symptoms of hay fever allergies. For persistent or severe hay fever, you may need a nasal steroid spray, in addition to an antihistamine treatment, your doctor or the pharmacist can help you with this.

If your symptoms are not being relieved by your current treatment, talk to your doctor or pharmacist for other options that may better suit your needs.


Always ask your doctor for advice if you are pregnant to describe what is best for you and suits your circumstances.


Certain lifestyles including diet, physical activities, stress, quality of sleep can affect your allergy, its incidence and severity. Avoiding allergy triggers is very important in managing symptoms.


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare